Antivirus software: Software designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software from a computer or network.

Biometric authentication: Using unique physical or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints or facial recognition, to verify a person’s identity.

Botnet: A network of compromised computers, controlled by a central attacker (bot herder), used to carry out malicious activities.

Brute force attack: A trial-and-error method used by attackers to decode encrypted data or passwords by systematically trying all possible combinations.

Cybersecurity Incident Response: The process of handling and mitigating the impact of a cybersecurity incident.

Data breach: Unauthorized access, disclosure, or acquisition of sensitive or confidential data.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack: An attack that floods a network, system, or website with excessive traffic or requests to disrupt its normal functioning.

DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service): A type of cyber attack in which multiple compromised computers or devices, known as a botnet, are used to overwhelm a target system with a massive volume of traffic or requests.

Encryption: The process of converting plain text or data into an unreadable format to prevent unauthorized access.

Endpoint security: Security measures deployed on individual devices (endpoints) to protect against threats and unauthorized access.

Exploit: A piece of software or code that takes advantage of a vulnerability or weakness in a system or application.

Firewall: A network security device that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

Firewall rules: Configurations that dictate how a firewall should handle network traffic based on predetermined criteria.

Hacking: Gaining unauthorized access to computer systems or networks to exploit or manipulate them.

Incident response team: A group of professionals responsible for coordinating and responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS): A security tool that monitors network traffic and detects and alerts administrators about suspicious or malicious activity.

Keylogger: Malware that records keystrokes on a compromised device, allowing attackers to gather sensitive information such as passwords or credit card numbers.

Malware: Malicious software designed to disrupt or gain unauthorized access to computer systems or networks.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA): A security method that requires users to provide multiple forms of identification to access a system or application.

Network Security: Measures and practices implemented to protect computer networks from unauthorized access, misuse, or modification.

Network segmentation: Dividing a computer network into smaller subnetworks to enhance security and control network traffic.

Password cracking: The process of decrypting or discovering passwords through various methods, such as brute-force attacks or dictionary attacks.

Patch: A software update released by developers to fix security vulnerabilities or improve functionality.

Patch Management: The process of acquiring, testing, and deploying software patches and updates to ensure systems are up to date and secure.

Penetration testing: A controlled security assessment conducted to identify vulnerabilities in a system by simulating real-world attacks.

Phishing: A form of cyber attack where attackers use deceptive emails or messages to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information or performing actions.

Privacy policy: A document outlining an organization’s practices and policies regarding the collection, use, and protection of personal information.

Ransomware: Malware that encrypts a victim’s data and demands a ransom payment in exchange for its release.

Red teaming: A simulation of real-world attacks conducted by independent teams to evaluate the effectiveness of an organization’s security measures.

Risk assessment: The process of identifying, analyzing, and evaluating potential risks and vulnerabilities to determine appropriate security measures.

Rootkit: A rootkit is a collection of malicious software tools or programs that are designed to gain unauthorized and persistent access to a computer system or network.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A cryptographic protocol used to establish secure connections between web browsers and servers.

Security audit: An assessment of an organization’s security policies, procedures, and controls to identify vulnerabilities and ensure compliance.

Security awareness training: Educational programs or initiatives aimed at educating individuals about potential cybersecurity risks and best practices.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM): A system that collects and analyzes security events and logs to identify and respond to potential threats.

Social engineering: The use of psychological manipulation techniques to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information or performing certain actions.

Social media engineering: Manipulating individuals on social media platforms to gather information or gain unauthorized access.

Spyware: Malicious software that secretly gathers information about a user’s activities without their knowledge or consent.

Threat actor: An individual, group, or entity that carries out or sponsors cyber attacks.

Trojan horse: Malware disguised as legitimate software, which, when executed, allows unauthorized access or control of a computer system.

Two-factor authentication (2FA): A security measure that requires users to provide two different forms of identification to verify their identity.

Virtual machine: A software emulation of a physical computer that allows multiple operating systems to run simultaneously, providing isolation and security.

VPN (Virtual Private Network): A secure network connection that allows users to access and transmit data over a public network as if they were connected to a private network.

Vulnerability: A weakness or flaw in a system that can be exploited by attackers to compromise its security.

Vulnerability assessment: The process of identifying and evaluating weaknesses and vulnerabilities in a system or network.

Web application firewall (WAF): A security solution that filters and monitors HTTP/HTTPS traffic between web applications and the internet, protecting against web-based attacks.

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA): A security protocol designed to secure wireless computer networks.

XSS (Cross-Site Scripting): A type of vulnerability where attackers inject malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users, potentially compromising their data or browser sessions.

Zero-day exploit: An attack that takes advantage of a software vulnerability that is unknown to the software developer or vendor.</p>